The Bahama Islands have long been popular destinations for fishermen seeking blue marlin. , located at the eastern edge of the Gulf Stream, has the longest history of blue marlin fishing in the islands, dating back to the 1930s and 1940s when anglers such as Michael Lerner, Ernest Hemingway, and S. Kip Farrington fished there . From the 1960s, more outlying areas such as and the Abaco islands have developed as blue marlin grounds. The Bahamas is home to one of the most intensely competitive tournament series in marlin fishing, the Bahamas Billfish Championship.
Blue marlin are eclectic feeders preying on a wide range of prey species and sizes. Scientific examination of blue marlin stomach contents has yielded organisms as small as miniature filefish. Common food items include tuna-like fishes, particularly and frigate mackerel (also known as ), , , and scad. Of more interest to sport fishermen is the upper range of blue marlin prey size. A 72-inch (1,800 mm) white marlin has been recorded as being found in the stomach of a 448 pounds (203 kg) blue marlin caught at Walker's Cay in the Bahamas, and more recently, during the 2005 White Marlin Open, a white marlin in the 70-pound (32 kg) class was found in the stomach of one of the money-winning blues. Shortbill spearfish of 30 to 40 pounds (14 to 18 kg) have been recorded as feed items by Kona blue marlin fishermen. Yellowfin and bigeye tuna of 100 pounds (45 kg) or more have also been found in the stomachs of large blue marlin.
Blue marlin are fished by sport fishermen operating from several locations along the Atlantic coast of Brazil. Blue marlin have been encountered as far south as , and are regularly hooked and caught in annual tournaments held offshore of . However, the majority of international attention has thus far focused on Canavieiras, the gateway to the Royal Charlotte Bank, an extensive area of bottom structure that holds billfish, tuna, and other pelagics in great numbers; and on Cabo Frio, where an annual tournament has produced several fish weighing in excess of 1,000 pounds (450 kg).
The city of is considered one of the finest locations for blue marlin fishing by many anglers. Fishing is a popular activity in Vitória, attracting fishermen from other states and countries due to the large population of and off the coast of . Largest of the many big blue marlin caught at Vitória is the all-tackle record, held by Paulo Amorim, who caught a blue marlin that weighed 636 kilograms (1,402 lb).